The “Finite and Non-finite verbs” have already been discussed previously. In this post, the “Non-finite verb” and its classifications are to be discussed in detail.
Non-finite verbs: As previously stated, the verb that does not change its form with the change in the number and the person of its subject and the tense of the sentence, is categorised as the “Non-finite verb”. Such verbs remain in the same form in all the tenses, numbers and persons of their subjects.
For example 1. “I want to play cricket”, 2. “He wants to play cricket”.
(Here, in both the sentences 1. and 2. the verb “to play” remains the same, though each of them belongs to a different person.)
1. “Playing cards is not allowed here”, 2. “Playing cards was not allowed there.”
(Here, in both the sentences 1. and 2. the verbal noun “playing” remains the same, though each of them belongs to a different tense.)
Learners may follow the tree below in this regard:
According to the tree above “Non-finite” verbs are categorised as 1. Participle, 2. Gerund and 3. Infinitives. Each of them is discussed below in detail.
Participles: Participles are forms of verbs which play the roles of both an adjective and a verb at the same time. Participles are called verbal-adjectives.
For example 1. “A rolling stone gathers no moss.”, 2. “We saw a girl carrying a basket of flowers.”
(Here in the first sentence the word “rolling” plays the role of an adjective for the noun “stone” and again plays the role of a verb for it has an object “stone” at the same time. In the second sentence, the word “carrying” does the work of an adjective for the noun “girl” and at the same time possesses an object “a basket of flowers“.)
Gerund: It is a verb form that plays the role of a verb and a noun at the same time. It ends in -ing and is thus called verbal-noun.
For example 1. “I like reading stories”, 2. “She is fond of cooking new dishes.”
(Here in sentence 1. the word “reading” like a noun is the object of the verb “like“, but like a verb, it takes an object “stories“. Again in sentence 2. the word “cooking” like a noun, is the object of the preposition “of“, but, like a verb takes an object “new dishes“.)
Infinitives: It is that form of the verb which partakes of the nature of both a noun and a verb in a sentence. It is formed by adding “to”, expressed or understood, before the base form of the verb and is called verbal-noun.
For example 1. He wants to play cricket with me, 2. They agreed to obey the king’s order.
(Now, in sentence 1. the infinitive “to play“, like a noun, is the object of the verb “wants“, but, like a verb, it also takes an object “cricket“. Again in sentence 2. the infinitive “to obey“, like a noun, is the object of the verb “agreed“, but, like a verb, it takes an object “the king’s order” too.)
You may like: How to use Infinitive and it’s types with Examples